Should You Tap Your 401(k) to Fund Your Down Payment?
How exciting that you’re buying your first home! I know how hard it can be to come up with a down payment in an expensive market, so this is a great question.
The traditional financial advice has long been, “Never take an early withdrawal from retirement savings”—and I generally agree. One exception, however, might be exactly the situation you describe. Why? For two reasons. First, because you’re taking a loan rather than a permanent withdrawal. Second, because you’re using the money to buy a first home, which can be a challenging—but ultimately worthwhile—financial goal.
That said, you need to proceed with caution. A study by TIAA found nearly a third of Americans who participate in a retirement plan have taken out a loan from it—and 44% regretted it.1 So, if you want to borrow from your 401(k) without regret, it’s best to understand how such loans work, as well as the benefits and risks involved.
First, not all 401(k) plans allow loans. Even if yours does, every 401(k) plan limits how much you can borrow: one-half of the vested value of your account or a maximum of $50,000, whichever is less. If both you and your spouse have $100,000 or more in separate accounts, you’re eligible to borrow $50,000 each, for a total of $100,000—a big chunk toward a down payment.
The repayment period is typically five years, although that can vary by plan and may not apply if the loan is used to purchase a home. Repayment options usually include regular deductions from your paycheck or a lump sum by a specific date, and there’s no penalty for repaying the loan early.
In general, I recommend you pay back the entire amount as soon as possible, preferably in three years or less. No matter which option or time frame you choose, it’s important to create and stick to a repayment schedule.
Revisit your budget and make this a line item. If you miss even one payment, the loan could be recategorized by the IRS as a “distribution,” which means you would have to pay federal income tax on the loan amount, plus a 10% early withdrawal penalty if you’re under age 59½.
The potential benefits
One of the best parts of borrowing from your 401(k) is you don’t have to go through the lengthy process of applying for a loan. There are no credit checks and you can usually place a call or make a quick visit to your 401(k) provider’s website to secure the loan and have a check in hand within a week.
The other upside is that principal and interest on the loan are paid to your own account. Hence, a 401(k) loan effectively becomes an interest-free loan—provided you repay it on time.
The potential risks
One of the biggest risks of borrowing from your 401(k) is you’re usually required to repay the loan immediately if you lose your job. Depending on your plan, this might be at termination or within 60 days. If there’s a chance your job is at risk and you’d be unable to repay the loan on such short notice, I’d caution against borrowing from your 401(k).
There are also considerable long-term risks to consider. While borrowing from a 401(k) may allow you to buy your first home, it still diminishes your retirement assets. By taking out a loan, you’ll lose the tax-deferred growth on that part of your savings until the funds are put back.
In addition, some plans don’t allow you to make new contributions during the repayment period. This means you could miss out on adding to your savings, the earnings from such contributions, and any matching contributions offered by your employer—which could derail your retirement plans. So if you’re already behind on your retirement savings, taking out a loan is probably a bad idea.
As a rule of thumb, you want to build up your retirement assets, not deplete them. Therefore, resist the temptation to borrow from your 401(k) to pay for anything other than a down payment.
That said, a short-term loan from a 401(k) to buy a house can make sense in some cases, especially if your job is secure, you’re generally on track with your retirement savings and you’re buying into what you believe is a healthy real estate market. Just be sure you have enough of a cash cushion to cover contingencies. You don’t want to be so house poor that you can’t properly maintain the property or respond to an emergency.
If you do decide to take out a short-term loan for your down payment, make sure the size of the loan payment doesn’t impede your ability to keep contributing to your 401(k), if your plan allows it. Even if you can’t afford the maximum contribution, put away at least enough to capture the company match. You don’t want to walk away from free money.
1TIAA-CREF Borrowing Against Your Future Survey: Executive Summary, tiaa.org, 06/18/2014.
What You Can Do Next
- Read more insights from Carrie.
- Is borrowing from a 401(k) to buy a first home the right decision? Find out what one young couple learned.
- Having a financial plan can help you navigate major life events, like buying a new house. A CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER™ professional can help you map out your plan when you enroll in Schwab Intelligent Portfolios Premium™.